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Contracts and Agreements Part Two: Aims and Requirements: To learn about what the Contract is and what the Agreement is; To learn about the Types and Structure of the Contract; To learn about the Language Characteristics of the Contract; To practice reading, translating and writing the Contract Part Three: Teaching Contents I. What is the Contract and what is the Agreement? II. The Types of the Business Contract III. The Structure of the Business Contract IV. The Language Characteristics of the Contract V. The Handling Procedure of S/C and P/C VI. What are to be noted when we draft the Contract? VII. How to fill a Contract? Part Four: Study of the Contract and the Agreement I. What is the Contract and what is the Agreement? 它们很相似,但仍然是有区别的,简单来说, ‘contract’ 要比 ‘agreement’更加正式,更具有法律效力。云南11选5_[官网首页] A Contract is a formal written agreement which sets forth binding obligations of the parties concerned. It is enforceable by law. Once a contract is signed, any party concerned should fulfill his obligations, otherwise, he will be sued and has to make a compensation. A Contract is formed on agreement (协商) and agreement arises from offer (要约) and acceptance(承诺). Once one party makes an offer and another party accepts it, a contract is formed. An Agreement is: 1.an official document that businessmen sign to show that they have agreed to something 2.an arrangement or promise to do something, made by two or more people, companies, organizations, etc. A simple “agreement” is an arrangement between the parties which may or may not contain the necessary elements to be enforceable before a court of law such as “offer” and “acceptance”. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Quite often the word "contract" can mean the document containing the agreement, but "agreement" can be used in that sense too. Contract also tends to be used to mean a binding or formal agreement. Law students study the law of contract, rather than the law of agreements. 协议是合同的一种概念,即所有的合同都是协议,但并非所有的协议都是合同,所以说合同是具有特定内容的协议。 协议的定义:机关、企事业单位、社会团体或个人,相互之间为了某个经济问题,或者合作办理某项事情,经过共同协商后,订立的共同遵守和执行的条文。 协议与合同的区别: 1、合同有违约责任的规定,协议书没有。 2、经济合同有“合用法”作为依据,协议书暂时没有具体法规规定。 3、协议书比合同应用范围广,项目往往比合同项目要大,内容不如合同具体。云南11选5_[官网首页]因此,协议书签订以后,往往还要分项签订一些专门合同。 II. The Types of the Business Contract The business contract can be divided into the following five types according to their degree of simplicity: 1. Contract (正式合同), 2. Agreement (协议书), 3. Confirmation (确认书), 4. Memorandum (备忘录), 5. Order/Indent (订单), etc. The first three are more commonly used in Chinese foreign trade enterprises which generally have their own printed set format of contract or confirmation. III. The Structure of the Business Contract 就外经贸合同的整体结构而言,首先要求合同的内容必须完整;其次要求合同条款中双方的责任要明确;再者合同条款的整体结构必须严谨(指章、条、款之间既条理清晰、又结构紧凑;内容的逻辑思维无懈可击,并且表达严密);最后要求条款的语言应简明扼要、通俗易懂。 As a complete and effective business contract, it is, in most cases, comprised of the three principal parts: 1. The Head (约首) (the effect part) 2. The Body (本文) (the rights and obligations part) 3. The Tail (约尾) (the effect part) 1. The Head (约首) 1) Title of the Contract 合同名称 2) Preamble: 前文/序言 a. Date of Signing订约日期 b. Place of Signing订约地点 c. Contract Number合同号 d. Signing Parties and their Addresses 订约当事人及其地址 e. Recitals or WHEREAS clause订约缘由 约首又被称为效力部分。云南11选5_[官网首页]其中,前言中载明当事人的名称及其法定地址、缔约目的和原则。订约当事人及其地址(有些研究者称为当事人的合法依据)应以详细名称写出,不能用缩写形式。订约缘由将在“语言特点”当中的“用语方面”第7点作介绍。 2. The Body(本文) 1)Definition Clause 定义条款 2)Basic Conditions 基本条款 3)General Terms and Conditions 一般条款 a. Duration合同有效期限 b. Termination合同的终止 c. Force Majeure不可抗力 d. Assignment合同的让与 e. Arbitration仲裁 f. Governing Law适用的法律 g. Jurisdiction 诉讼管辖 h. Notice通知手续 i. “Entire Agreement” Clause完整条款 j. Amendment合同的修改 k. Others其它 本文又被称作权利与义务部分,是合同的中心内容,在整个合同中所占的篇幅最长。云南11选5_[官网首页]它明确规定双方当事人的具体权利和义务、违约赔偿、不可抗力、争议解决、适用法律等条款。其中,完整条款即表明与涉及的现行契约条款的关系。 3. The Tail (约尾) 1) Number of Originals 合同份数 2) The Effectiveness of the Language (in which the Contract is written) 合同文字的效力 3) The Effectiveness of the Contract Annexes 合同附件的效力 4) Signature 签名 5) Seal 盖印 约尾同约首一样,也被称为效力部分。对于东方国家来说除签署外还需要盖印,而西方国家则无此项规定:一般在合同上进行了签署,该合同便具有了法律效力。在国际经贸活动中,签名的字体与写法必须统一、固定,而且是他人难以模仿的。尤其是在合同文本的页数很多(如技术贸易合同)时,更要注意,因为每一页都需要签署。 关于对外经贸合同的格式,目前流行的一般有三种:1、条款式(或称条文式),2、条款、表格混合式,3、表格式。云南11选5_[官网首页] 条款式合同格式在涉外经贸合同当中使用最为普遍,几乎各种类型的合同均采用这种格式(如商品买卖合同,机械设备贸易合同、国际工程项目合同等),即合同当中的所有条款均用横式条文分项列出。 条款、表格混合式多用于商品买卖合同及加工贸易合同。在商品买卖合同中,商品名称、规格、包装、数量、单价、总值等项目均用表格列出;在加工贸易合同中,由委托方向被委托方提供的原辅料、零部件以及后者向前者送交的成品的品名、数量、规格、包装、单价、总值等项目也用表格列出,其它条款则全部采用条文式。 表格式合同格式一般用于商品买卖合同。云南11选5_[官网首页]如果交易商品数量不多,品种性能比较单一,交易金额数字不大,可全部采用表格式,如“售货确认书”、“购货确认书”、“订单”等。 IV. The Language Characteristics of the Contract (1). Wording 用词方面 1、常使用正式或法律上的用词。例如: 1)The authorities approved (the) said application of 3rd November,2003. 主管机关已批准2003年11月3日的上述申请。 (“the said”或“said”是公文体,意为“该”、“上述的”。) 2)This Contract shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of China. 本合同应受中国法律管辖,并按中国法律解释。 (“construe”为法律用词,较“explain”、“interpret”正式。) 由于合同是法律性的正式书面文件,所以使用法律的、正式的用词是必要的。合同的草拟者应加强学习并正确使用这些诃语,以便草拟出来的合同能达到订约的目的和要求。 2、常在副词“here”,“there”,“where”之后加一个或两个介词,构成新的副词,使其成为公文用语。例如: 1)This Contract,made as of the day of July l,2003 by and between ABC Co. (hereinafter called Party A) and XYZ Co. (hereinafter called Party B).... 本合同于2003年7月1日由ABC公司(以下简称甲方)与XYZ公司(以下简称乙方)签订。 (hereinafter=later in this contract,意为“在下文”) 2)The deposit paid by the Buyers shall not be refunded if the Buyers fail to make full payment within the time herein specified and the Buyers shall be liable for all losses incurred therefrom to the Sellers. 如果买方在规定的时间内未付清货款,买方的保证金就不予偿还,而且买方应承担卖方由此引起的一切损失。 (herein=in this,意为“此中;于此”;therefrom=from that意为“从那里”) 类似上述的复合副词还有许多,诸如:hereafter, hereto, hereby, therein, thereby, thereof, wherein, whereof”等。由于这些词只出现在合同和公文中,初学时容易混淆。但只要记住“here”代表“this”, “there”代表“that”, “where”代表“what”或“which”,便易于理解并掌握。在合同中使用这些词,可避免重复、累赘,以期达到准确、简洁之目的。 3、常用成双成对的同义词。例如: 1) This Agreement is made and entered into by and between ABC Co.and XYZ Co.. ABC公司和XYZ公司双方签订本协议。(同义动词与介词成对出现。) 2) Claims in respect of matters within the responsibility of the insurance company or of the shipping company will not be considered or entertained by the Sellers. 属于保险公司或轮船公司责任范围内的索赔,卖方不予接受。(同义动词成对出现。) 把两个同义词或非同义但起同样作用的两个词放在一起,也是合同英语的一个常见现象,其目的是要更加准确地表述某个概念,以避免诉讼时双方律师钻词义间的细微差别而大做文章,这是从多年的判例中总结出来的经验。同时,成双成对用词还可起强调作用。现代合同语言提倡简化,如无必要可以不必用成对词语;而如有争论之可能时,在重要合同中还应按习惯用词为好。 4、常用“shall”表示法律上可强制执行的义务或正式的规定。例如: 1) The Sellers shall present the following documents to the paying bank for negotiation: 卖方应向付款银行呈交下列单据进行议付: 2) The L/C shall be valid until the l5th day after the shipment. 信用证有效期至装船后15天止。 在合同中,“shall”并非单纯的将来时,以“人”作主语时,一般用它表示法律上的义务和责任;以“事/物”作主语时,用之表示应当执行的规定。“shall”可译成“应”、“应该”、“必须”。而“will”一般使用在没有法律强制的情况下,应译为“将”、“愿”、“要”。“may”则用于表示契约上的权利(right)、权限(power)或特权(priviledge)的场合。在表示权利的场合,如该权利在法律上可强制时,用“is entitled”更为合适。 5、常在两个名词、动词或动名词(即平行语法结构)之间使用“and/or”,以使法律性条文在措词上更为准确、严密。 例如: 1) Should the Quality and/or Quantity (Weight)be found not in conformity with that of the Contract,the Buyers are entitled to lodge a claim with the Sellers. 如发现品质和/或数量(重量)与合同不符,买方有权向卖方索赔。 2) If the Buyers fail to open the Letter of Credit in time, the Sellers shall have the right to cancel this Sales Contract without further notice and/or claim on the Buyers for losses resulting therefrom. 若买方未能按时开立信用证,卖方有权在不通知买方的情况下撤销合同和/或向买方提出因此所造成的损失的索赔。 6、合同英语属法律英语的范畴,而法律文字中有一些专用词汇,源出拉丁语或法语,也有的是来自古英语(如第2点所谈)。 例如: 常用的拉丁语有:basis,table,register,state,declaration 常用的法语有:proposal,effect,schedule,duly,policy,subject, terms,conditions,contract,accept 常用的法律法语和拉丁语有:fee simple(不限制具有一定身份的人才能继承的土地),pro rata(按比例),pro forma(形式上) (2). Ways of Expressing 用语方面 1、用语要求准确、明白、严密。例如: 1)The Seller shall deliver the goods before July 31,2003. 这句话似是而非,因为我们都理解为包括7月31日在内,而英语国家则理解为只包括7月30日却不包括31日。此句若改为:The Seller shall deliver the goods on or before July 31,2003.就不会引起买卖双方的争论了。 2)Payment shall be made by Party B in a week. 这句话模棱两可,因为它既可理解为在一个星期之内,又可理解为在一个星期之后。因此,如果我们想说前者就应用within a week;想说后者就应用after a week。 2、多用现在时态,少用将来时态。 尽管合同的条款是规定签约以后的事项,通常仍以使用现在时态为原则。例如: The period of Lease is two years beginning from the date the Lessee accepts the equipment on examination. 租期为两年,从承租人验收设备之日起算。 3、多用主动语态,少用被动语态。例如: A、The rules and regulations of the worksite shall be observed by workers. 工地的规章应被工人遵守。 B、Workers shall observe the rules and regulations of the worksite. 工人应遵守工地的规章。 试比较以上两句,意思虽然相同,但因表达方式不同,B句比A句更佳,因为主动语态比较自然、明确、直接和有力。 4、多用直接表达方式,少用间接表达方式。例如: A. This Article does not apply to bondholders who have not been paid in full. 本条款不适用于尚未全部偿付的债券持有者。 B. This Article applies only to bondholders who have been paid in full. 本条款只适用于已经全部偿付了的债券持有者。 上述的A句采用否定的间接表达方式,然而却没有B句的直接表达方式那么明白、直截了当。 5、能以一个动词表达者就用一个动词,而避免使用“动词+名词+介词”之类的同义短语。例如: Party A shall make an appointment of its representative within 30 days after signing the Contract. 甲方应于签约后30天内指定其授权代表。 如我们用“appoint”取代上句中的“make an appointment of”,这句话便变得更为简洁、有力。 6、常用“should,where,provided(that),in case,on condition that,in the event(that)”引导条件状语从句。例如: 1)Where/Provided (that)/In case/In the event (that) no settlement can be reached through negotiation, the case shall then be submitted for arbitration. 倘若协商不能解决,该争议应提交仲裁。 2)Should the content of Tribasic Phosphate of Lime fall below 70%,the Buyers have the right to refuse the cargo. 如磷酸三钙含量低于70%,买方有权拒绝收货。 上述引导词/短语中,“should”之后的谓语动词只能用其原形;为了简洁,可将“in case (sth. happens)”和“in the event (that)”分别换成“in case of (sth.)”和“in the event of (sth.)”的结构来使用。 7、多用法律文件中使用的某些专用词语。例如: 1)WITNESS 证明 它是在合同前文中常用作首句的谓语动词。其古体WITNESSETH是第三人称单数现在时,即等于WITNESSES。例如: This Agreement, made…by…, WITNESS WHEREAS…,it is agreed as follows: 本协议由……签定证明:鉴于……特此达成如下协议: 2)WHEREAS鉴于/有鉴于 它是在合同前文中用作引出签约由来和目的的连词,由它引出的条款因而被称作“说明条款”或“鉴于条款”。正式而重要的合同,尤其是英美法系的合同,多有此条款。例如: WHEREAS A desires to export to B the goods as specified in Exhibit A hereof (hereinafter called the“Goods”); and whereas B desires to import the Goods from A; 鉴于甲方愿意向乙方出口本合同附件A中所规定的物品(以下简称“货物”);且鉴于乙方愿意从甲方进口上述货物; (3). Types of Sentences 用句方面 1、使用陈述句,不使用疑问句。(例句见以上用词/用语方面的各个例句) 经贸合同属于法律文件,它规定缔约双方应做些什么,而不是提出问题或进行商榷,因此协议中都是陈述句,而不是疑问句。 2、使用完整句,不使用省略句。(例句见以上用词/用语方面的各个例句) 经贸合同的制作是为了对交易各方协商妥当的每一事项用文字加以清楚地阐述,为了使规定明确,排除被曲解的可能性,合同使用的句子都是完整句,而不是省略句。 3、常用含有大量定语、状语结构的复合句,且句子都较长。例如: 1)Any award rendered by the arbitrators of the Commission shall be enforceable by any court having jurisdiction over the party or parties against whom the award has been rendered,or having jurisdiction in the place where assets of the party or parties against whom the award has been rendered can be located. 仲裁委员会仲裁员的任何裁决均应由下类法庭进行强制性执行:对受到判决的一方或数方具有法律管辖权的,或对受到判决的一方或数方的资产所在地具有管辖权的任一法庭。 法律文字中也使用大量的定语结构,来精确地说明一些名词。同时,法律文件中还常出现定语套定语的复杂结构(上例便是此类句子),在阅读或翻译当中,必须反复推敲,才能确定哪个定语修饰哪个词。为了避免误解,定语应尽量靠近所形容的词语。 2)Should the goods be found,on their arrival at destination,to be different from the sample,if by that difference their character is not altered,or if they are in merchantable condition though inferior in quality to the sample, the buyer shall take delivery of the goods on condition that a reasonable allowance is to be made on the contract price by subsequent mutual negotiation. 货物到达目的地时,如发现与样品不符,但货未发生质变,或货物仍可销售,买方仍应照常提货,但合同价将酌予削减,其数额由双方议定。 法律文字要求明确、详细规定在什么情况下、什么时间或地点应该以什么方式做什么事,这就需要使用大量的时间、地点、条件、方式等状语。在法律文字中,状语的位置通常是紧接它所形容的动词,而不考虑较正常的语序。 4、常使用“shall+动词原形”和“may+动词原形”结构的句子,以规定交易各方必须做的及可以做的事宜。在使用时,在助动词和动词之间常插入一连串的状语。例如: 1)The Employer shall, except as otherwise stated, ascertain and determine by measurement the value in terms of the Contract of work done in accordance with the Contract. 除非另有规定,业主应计量并决定按合同进行的工程量的价值。 2)In such a case, the Buyer may, if so requested, send a sample of the goods in question to the Seller, provided that sampling and sending of such sample is feasible. 在此情况下,凡货物适于抽样及寄送时如卖方要求,买方可将样品寄交卖方。 5、常用“…,if any,…”结构的句子。例如: Claims, if any, shall be filed by cable within fourteen days from the date of discharge of the goods at the destination. 若有索赔,必须在目的地卸货后14天内电报提出。 合同英语中,交易各方考虑到在交易的执行过程中可能会发生异议、违约、索赔、争议、不可抗力或其它意外事故等情况,为防患于未然,常把“if any”放在其所修饰的名词之后,表示“倘若发生/出现……(情况)”,应如何处理。 V. The Handling Procedure of S/C and P/C When the contract is made by the buyer, it is called the Purchase Contract and when made by the seller, the Sales Contract. In our export trade in China, it is the usual practice for us to make out a “Sales Contract” or “Sales Confirmation” on receipt of a foreign buyer’s order. The S/C (Sales Confirmation or Sales Contract) in duplicate after being signed by us, is sent to a foreign buyer for countersignature. Then, one signed copy of the S/C is requested to mail back to us for our file. In our import trade, we generally make out and sign a “Purchase Confirmation” or “Purchase Contract” which is to be sent to a foreign seller for countersignature. When this is signed by the latter, one copy of it should also be returned for the former’s file. VI. What is to be noted when drafting the Contract? 1. The clauses in the contract must correspond to each other. 2. Our foreign trade policy of equality and mutual benefit should be embodied in the contract. 3. The wording of the clauses must be specific, correct, clear, concise, concrete and complete. VII. How to fill the Contract? 1. A Contract Form 2. How to fill the Contract? 1. A Contract Form Contract (1)No. 合同号码 (2)The Seller: 卖方: (3)The Buyer: 买方: This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller, whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the under-mentioned goods/ commodity according to / subject to the terms and conditions stipulated below: 本合同由以上买卖双方订立,根据下述条款条件,买方同意购进,卖方同意售出以下商品,条款如下: (4)Commodity: 商品名称: (5)Specifications: 规格: (6)Quantity: 数量: (7)Unit Price: 价格(单价): (8)Total Value: 总值(总金额): (9)Packing: 包装: (10)Insurance: 保险: (11)Time of Shipment: 交货期: (12)Port of Shipment: 装运港: (13)Port of Destination: 目的港: (14)Shipping Marks: 唛头(装运标志): (15)Terms of Payment: 支付条件: (16)Done and signed in ___ on this ___ day of ___ 20__. 20__年__月__日签于___。 2. How to fill the Contract? (1)合同上如印有合同号码,无需再填。若无,则在中文合同或信件中找出合同号码,填入此栏。如:09-118;AC-213 (2)(3)卖方多为出口商,买方多为进口商,写上公司全名。如:China National Machinery Import & Export Corporation, Shanghai 注意别将(2)(3)填反。 (4)买卖双方所交易的商品名称。如:Pillowcases; “Petrel” Transistor Radio Model B-321 (5)规格视具体商品而定。表示规格的词汇很多,如:型号(Type, Model),尺码(Size),花样号(Patterns),颜色搭配(Assortments),等级(Grade),货号(Catalogue No; Art No.),等等。 (6)数量:数词后面加量词。常用的量词有:件数(pieces);打(dozen);套、台(sets);码(yards);米、公尺(metres);公吨(metric tons);公斤(kilograms);磅(pounds);等等。如:1,000 pieces; 10 dozen; 58,000 metric tons (7)价格(单价)由4部分构成:货币、单价、计价单位和贸易术语。常用搭配:At+货币符号+单位价格+计价单位+贸易术语。如:At RMB¥ 800 per metric ton CFR Copenhagen (8)总金额=单价x数量。如:单价为US$8 per dozen FOB Singapore; 数量为1,500 dozen; 则总值=8x1,500=12,000 写为:US$12,000 2. How to fill the Contract? (9)包装常用in构成的介词短语,常用的包装容器有:袋、包(bag);麻袋(gunny bag);塑料袋(polybag);盒(box);箱(case);纸板箱(carton);木箱(wooden case);板条箱(crate);铁皮桶(drum);听(can, tin)等。如:In wooden cases each containing 50 pieces; In gunny bags of about 110 lbs net each 有时把…装入…包装用介词to。如:10 dozen to a box and 50 boxes to a carton (10)保险用不定式短语:To be effected/covered by sb.+ against 险别+for 投保加成的百分比。若未指明由谁投保,则按贸易术语分析。如:FOB,CFR术语应由买方办理保险事宜;CIF术语则由卖方办理投保。险别一般为一切险(包括11种一般附加险)/水渍险/平安险和战争险,保险金额常为发票金额的110%。超出此范围的保险费常由买方负担。例如:To be covered by the Seller against All Risks and War Risk for 110% of the invoice value (11)交货期常用介词in或during加在月份前,再写某年。若需要,可说明转船何港口,或怎样分批装运。如:In August, 2009, with transshipment at Hongkong (12) (13)装运港和目的港,即货物装上船和最后到达的港市和国名。先写港市名,再写国名。如:Genoa, Italy; China Port; European Main Ports (14)唛头即装运标志,可由卖方选择,也可由买方选择。如:At Seller’s option; At Buyer’s option 2. How to fill the Contract? (15)支付条件:用介词短语By…L/C亦可;也可用不定式短语To be made by…L/C。由于我国出口商品常要求买方用不可撤销的即期信用证支付,并规定信用证于装运期前一个月到达卖方;装运期与议付有效期相隔至少15天,才有充足的时间制单议付,议付地点在出口国。若我方为出口商,常按上述要求写为: By (a confirmed) , irrevocable sight L/C (or: L/C payable by draft at sight), to reach the Seller 30 days before (the date of) shipment and remain valid for negotiation in China until the 15th day after the date of shipment (16)合同于何时何地签订。In后填签字地点,大写;on this后填天日,应用序数词,如:1st, 23rd等; of后填月份,大写,如:August, May; 最后为x x x 年。 Note: 填合同的每一项第一个单词的第一个字母须大写,专有名词单词的每第一个字母都要大写。






  • 商务合同英语ppt

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